Bibliography and links:

Please note that I rarely cite works that are not available on the web (expensive and often unavailable dead tree works) and  that I only zip through past posts twice a year or less to add in the new stuff I have found …


On Genshiken  now defunct  Most chapter discussions excised (from Brazil, use Xlate)

The two extant Kio Shimoku interviews on the Genshiken

A Japanese interview about Spotted Flower. Translate plug-ins work well enough.  2015/05/25


Typical fan responses:

An anthology of Hato-themed fan-fiction (guess who snuck in too!)


The last violence we impose upon the queer of our straight imaginations
is the burden of our hopes


On Yuri Now at:

Erica Friedman’s weariness with the yuri genre Story A

The Friedman Addendum to the Bechdel Test essay section

40 Years of the Same Damn Story, Pt.1 by Erica Friedman.


Beautiful and Innocent; Female Same-Sex Intimacy in the Japanese Yuri Genre
PhD Disertation by Verena Maser . 27.9.2013 Universität Trier
This is required reading from now on. Excellent historical summary, Extremely useful and interesting fan survey research that also touches on other libidinised CJVC genres.


Finding the  Power of the Erotic in Japanese Yuri Manga  by Sarah Thea Arruda Wellington, MA thesis, University of British Columbia (Vancouver) August 2015


On Yaoi

Probably the best I have found so far on the Japanese fujoshi experience:
Akiko Mizoguchi: Reading and Living Yaoi – Male-Male Fantasy Narratives as Women’s Sexual Subculture in Japan, University of Rochester PhD thesis 2008

By the same author, an update of sorts – Akiko Mizoguchi: Theorizing comics/manga genre as a productive forum: yaoi and beyond

This later shows up in a chapter of a free WHOLE BOOK ON MANGA STUDIES (!!!) Comics Worlds and the World of Comics: Towards Scholarship on a Global Scale (series Global Manga Studies, vol. 1) from the The Kyoto Seika University International Manga Research Center, . Get it here:

Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love’ (2003) by Mark McHarry has a quick roundup of historical reference to same-sex desire in Japan, along with its early  survey of the yaoi genre. Note also the footnotes at the end of the essay and appendix, see:

AN INTRODUCTION TO “BOYS LOVE” IN JAPAN by Mark McLelland and james Welker
Intro Chapter to Boys love manga and beyond : history, culture, and community in Japan edited by Mark McLelland, Kazumi Nagaike, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker.

Why are Japanese Girls’ Comics full of Boys Bonking?  by Mark McLelland


Girls and Women Getting Out of Hand by Matt Thorn,
Archived at:

Her blog: Now defuct. Archived version:

Her Blog, freshly revived:


Kazumi Nagaike Elegant Caucasians, Amorous Arabs, and Invisible Others: Signs and Images of Foreigners in Japanese BL Manga

Japanese women writers watch a boy being beaten by his father:
Male homosexual fantasies, female sexuality and desire by Kazumi Nagaike, PhD thesis (Asian Studies, University of British Columbia, 2004):
Later expanded into the book: Fantasies of Cross-Dressing: Japanese Women Write Male-Male Erotica, see Google books excerpts and description:

An editorial summary of the contents of Vol 12 (2013) of the online Transformative Works and Cultures Journal; Transnational boys’ love fan studies by Kazumi Nagaike and Katsuhiko Suganuma, at:

Do Heterosexual Men Dream of Homosexual Men?: BL Fudanshi and Discourse on Male Feminization by Kazumi Nagaike pp. 189-209 IN: Boys Love Manga and Beyond History, Culture, and Community in Japan, edited by Mark McLelland, Kazumi Nagaike, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker (2015) Citation:
Excerpt at: id=QAIbBwAAQBAJ&pg=PT235&lpg=189#v=onepage&q&f=false
This one is locked down. The Google Books excerpt seems to indicate that the actual study of Fudanshi was done by a japanese aca-fan in 2008-2009. Approximately %20 of the respondents identify as “straight” or “asexual”; which would mean they comprise appx. %2 of all BL readers. Nagaike seems to impose a reading of “herbivore men” on the practice and -to my mind, distressingly – follows up on Dr. Saito Tamaki’s excursion into shota, which she does not differentiate the otokonoko/jousou  genre from.


The referenced study by the Japanese Aca-fan:  Fudanshi ni kiku [Talking with fudanshi] by Yoshimoto, Taimatsu. 2008. Self-published.
The 2009 follow-up study lists Tagame Gengoroh as co-author.
See also:
For both studies, sample sizes ran to 100-110 respondents.


The Sexual and Textual Politics of Japanese Lesbian Comics, Reading Romantic and Erotic Yuri Narratives, by Kazumi Nagaike


Fujoshi: Fantasy Play and Transgressive Intimacy among “Rotten Girls” in Contemporary Japan by Patrick W. Galbraith,  JSTOR: Signs, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Autumn 2011), pp. 211-232 (somehow not locked down in Jstor – grab it before they change their mind)

Moe: Exploring Virtual Potential in Post-Millennial Japan by Patrick W. Galbraith

Lolicon: The Reality of ‘Virtual Child Pornography’ in Japan  by Patrick W. Galbraith, Image & Narrative, Vol 12, No1 (2011) PPS 105-106

An Interview with Patrick W. Galbraith on Otaku Culture – Part One, on, Parts 2 and 3 follow. 

The nasty origins of Madarame’s 2D forever complex for yourself, in: “Otaku Research and Anxiety About Failed Men” by Patrick W. Galbraith

Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture”, has its intro chapter available for perusal, see: “Introduction: The Mirror of Idols and Celebrity” by Patrick W. Galbraith and Jason G. Karlin

Otaku Research and Anxiety About Failed Men by Patrick W. Galbraith from the upcoming anthology: Debating Otaku in Contemporary Japan: Historical Perspectives and New Horizons (Soas Studies in Modern and Contemporary Japan) Hardcover – July 16, 2015 by Patrick W. Galbraith (Editor), Thiam Huat Kam (Editor), Björn-Ole Kamm (Editor), Christopher Gerteis (Series Editor) should not be missed. Article avalable here:


On The Iconic Difference between Couple Characters in Boys Love Manga;  by Febriani Sihombing, Image & Narrative, Vol 12, No1 (2011) 152-153

A very interesting bibliography on primary japanese fujoshi studies: On BL manga research in Japanese by Jessica Bauwens-Sugimoto

The possibilities of research on fujoshi in Japan by Midori Suzuki.  Translated by  Nele Noppe, 

Essay Review of Three Issues of the Japanese Literary magazine,
Yuriika (Eureka) by Tomoko Aoyama
“These three volumes are essential readings for anyone interested in BL, yaoi, and girl culture in contemporary Japan. They are also very useful and interesting for students and researchers of broader gender studies and Japanese popular culture and many other fields even though readers unfamiliar with the terms, genres and broader socio-cultural context may have some difficulties. ”

The Female Gaze in Contemporary Japanese Literature, by Kathryn Hemmann, PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania 2013

Queering the media mix: The female gaze in Japanese fan comics by Kathryn Hemmann

Everybody’s Fujoshi Girlfriend, Neojaponism (blog)

‘Gay manga” in Japanese Gay Men’s Life Stories: Bara, BL and the Problem of Genre by Thomas Baudinette.



A quick intro to Dr. Saito Tamaki’s Beautiful Fighting Girl thing:
Otaku for Queer Theory and Media Theory by Michael Moon
(some gender studies theory, but nothing to frighten the horses)

J. Keith Vincent’s Introduction to his (and Dawn Lawson’s ) 2011 translation of Dr. Tamaki’s landmark work; “Beautiful Fighting Girl”: Making it Real: Fiction, Desire, and the Queerness of the Beautiful Fighting Girl. (again, from a gender studies perspective: exceptionally well written and a must before reading the full work. Available at:

Rio Otomo‘s writings at
Notable so far:
A Girl with her Writing Machine: Amebic by Kanehara Hitomi

Politics of Utopia: Fantasy, Pornography, and Boys Love

(not Otaku-related but extremely useful: ) Mishima Yukio’s Sex which is not One


Anime Creativity Characters and Premises in the Quest for Cool Japan by Ian Condry


Proto-Otaku, The 1990’s:

Volker Grassmuck:

I’m Alone, but Not Lonely: Japanese otaku-Kids Colonize the Realm of Information and Media
(1999) Dates from when the definition of “Otaku” had yet to “gel” to the manga/anime/game nerds we think of when we hear the term today.
His original essay link:

Mirrored here:

Man, Nation & Machine The Otaku Answer to Pressing Problems of the Media Society (2000)

Both are highly conversational and impressionistic, with too much bubble economy and Gibson references but they have been widely cited as early materials in what would become “otaku studies”.

Jean-Jacques Beineix’s (Diva, etc.) ridiculous 1994 2hr and 40 minute video: ‘Otaku’ Le Cinema du Reel (Otaku, The Cinema of the Real)


Visual Kei and Idol fandom

Interview with an ex-Visual Kei record executive” at the Tokyo Damage Report blog  []  and the follow up: “visual kei fallout” post. []

Idols and Celebrity in Japanese Media Culture”, has its intro chapter available for perusal, see: “Introduction: The Mirror of Idols and Celebrity” by Patrick W. Galbraith and Jason G. Karlin


Lolita Fashion culture

Girliness Next to Godliness: Lolita Fandom as Sacred Criminality in the Novels of Takemoto Novala” by Brian Bergstrom, in  Mechademia 6: User Enhanced (2011)

Transcultural Flow of Demure Aesthetics: Examining Cultural Globalisation through Gothic & Lolita Fashion” []

Being Alice in Japan: performing a cute, ‘girlish’ revolt
[] (You really need to reg up an account, it’s a free and easy way to sneak around a few academic pay-walls) and the executive summaries “A Gentle Kind of Revolt: Cute (Kawaii) Fashion and Japanese Music-video Appropriations of ‘Alice” 
[ ] and “Lace Dress of Liberty: (Re)appraising Decorative Femininity through Kamikaze Girls[ ]

Shōjo Manga Research: The Legacy of Women Critics and Their Gender-Based Approach”  []


Real-life Japanese High School Blues

” The Making of Japan’s New Working Class: “Freeters” and the Progression From Middle School to the Labor Market ” by David H. Slater


For western fans:

Amy Ann O’Brien, Boys’ Love and Female Friendships: The Subculture of Yaoi as a Social Bond between Women (2008). Anthropology Theses. Paper 28.

‘The Homoerotic Requirement’ by Lori Hitchcock Morimoto in her blog ‘Some of us are looking at the stars’ points out a key POV shift in Japanese reception of the “Potter-verse” as opposed to that of Western slash fans. In simple terms, western fen-written slash fanfiction sees Hogwarts as a private high school. Japanese fen see ‘The Heart of Thomas’ and a long tradition of fantasy European boarding schools settings for pining and bullied bishie boys.



On Cosplay for fujoshis and others

Impersonating and performing queer sexuality
in the cosplay zone by Katrien Jacobs, The Chinese University, Hong Kong

Gender, Sexuality, and Cosplay: A Case Study of Male-to-Female Crossplay by Rachel Leng

An accomplished japanese Cosplayer who also blogs on Otaku/ fujoshi terms



Virtual Cosplay on Twitter, web forum identities, etc:

Playing with Identity: Fan Role Playing on Twitter” by Zakia Jeewa

Bound princes and monogamy warnings: Harry Potter, slash, and queer performance in LiveJournal communities by Darlene Hampton



On Slash, Romance and Porn

“One True Pairing: The Romance of Pornography and the Pornography of Romance”, by Catherine Driscoll: Chapter 2 of “Fan Fiction and Fan Communities in the Age of the Internet: New Essays” Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse, Editors (2006) (Summary



Guys getting all bothered too:

Male Otaku Paraphilia (MARCH 24, 2016) by ZEROREQ011 on THEREFORE IT IS Blog

When a “male” reads shōjo manga by ITŌ Kimio
(trans. Miyake Toshio)



Various forum-gates and male fans:

I’m not “that creepy guy from the Internet”: How Gamergate gave the geek community a bad name – I’ve been that bitter, lonely gamer looking for someone to blame. And I’m devastated that it’s come to this” (Oct 30, 2014) by Arthur Chu SALON


Misc Japanese culture:


LGBTQ+  in Japan; 20thC misc.– 

The Discourse on “Love Between Men” in Interwar Japan: Iwata’s History of Homosexuality by Brad Borovitz

‘The Process of Divergence between ‘Men who Love Men’ and ‘Feminised Men’ in Postwar Japanese Media’ by Ishida Hitoshi and Murakami Takanori, translated by Wim Lunsing

My Queer Career: Coming Out as a ‘Researcher’ in Japan by Sharon Chalmers, March 2002, Intersections.

Telling Her Story: Narrating a Japanese Lesbian Community by James Welker

Maki Muraki, the leader of nonprofit organization Nijiiro Diversity, which promotes workplace equality for LGBT people in Japan, on lesbian representation in J-drama.
“The things we do are not about sex. We face a lot of difficulties in our life, for example in the workplace. To be told that the image of us is one of sex doesn’t make me happy.”

A machine translation of an interview with Muraki-san:

And a presentation on workplace diversity policies in Japan that she worked on:

The Role of the ‘tōjisha’ in Current Debates about Sexual Minority Rights in Japan, by Mark McLelland in Japanese Studies, Volume 29, Issue 2, 2009 pps 193-207

Flower Tribes and Female Desire: Complicating Early Female Consumption of Male Homosexuality in Shōjo Manga by James Welker  , Mechademia  Volume 6, 2011
pp. 211-228 | 10.1353/mec.2011.0007 (paywalled -MUSE)

How Does Japan Treat Gay People?’ Quora Answer by Erica Friedman reprinted in Slate.

Coming out in Japan A survey of attitudes among university students’ by Robert Ó’Móchain

Out Gays” or “Shameless Gays”? What Gets Lost, and What is Gained, when U.S. Queer Theory is Translated into Japanese?’ video of lecture by J. Keith Vincent at:

Death of the “Legendary Okama” Togo Ken: challenging commonsense lifestyles in postwar Japan by Mark J. McLelland

JAPAN: Discrimination against Lesbians, Bisexual Women and Transgender Persons; A Shadow Report, May 2009

‘Japan LGBT group files human rights complaint in bid for same-sex marriages’  by Tomohiro Osaki. Japan Times, 2015, 07/07

The Stonewall Transgender Guide to Japan, Section 6: Trans-Pacific:
Differences between Japan and the West’

LGBTQ+ info for outlander English teachers and other Japan neophytes:

Takurei’s Room: LGBT experiences, resources and news from Japan


Herbivore Men:

An important primary source for the Japanese popular discourse on “Herbivore Men”, ca 2005. Now translated and open source on the author’s web site:
Confessions of a Frigid Man: A Philosopher’s Journey into the Hidden Layers of Men’s Sexuality” by Masahiro Morioka‏


Why Japanese copyright case-law makes for all those vague references to real-life people and brands 

How Yukio Mishima messed it up for everybody


Fun stuff:

How much money do doujinshi creators actually make? Some statistics from Comiket by Nele Noppe

Nele Noppe /  unjapanologist ‘s Tumblr blog: 

See Even a monkey can understand fan activism: Political speech, artistic expression, and a public for the Japanese dôjin community by Alex Leavitt and Andrea Horbinski




notable manga: (xdress x fujoshi) (yuri) (yuri)
Usotsuki Lily (xdress comedy)
Tripeace (xdress action comedy -no english wiki entry, use xlate)
Girl Saurus/ Girl Saurus X (noteable for the yaoi/fujoshi attack chapter ‘fermented saurus’ )



On transgendered folks, (real world vs CJVC representation):
(follow links, a wayback machine scrape will yield all sort of early stuff)

A good typology of real feeling and fake-ish transexual-ness in Manga by a trans-fan:

Revealing and Concealing Identities: Cross-Dressing in Anime and Manga, Part 5 by Lea.

Transsexual stands proud in a land of conformity, Sydney Morning Herald, May 3 2003 Profile of Aya Kamikawa, Japanese politician, activist and transwoman

What I Love About Haruhi Fujioka by Erin in the Gagging on Sexism blog:

The well-noted PBS Frontline look at transgender teens in the USA: ‘Growing Up Trans’;



On the fantastic representation of faux-trans* characters as fetish: The Japanese Josou/ otokonoko genre:

Josou, a discussion – Part 1: Josou, fetishism and gender identity 

Josou, a discussion – Part 2: What is the appeal of pontificating on the appeal of traps?

Josou, a discussion – Part 3: Josou Sanmyaku and the otokonoko’s will to power.

Josou, a discussion – Part 4: Otokonoko as surrogate victim

Josou, a discussion – Part 5: Boku no Pico as progenitor of the otokonoko



Are Otaku and Fudanshi more progressive towards minority sexualities and gender expressions?

–Otaku Culture and Its Discontents: A Record of Talk Delivered at “The Colloquium in Visual and Cultural Studies” by Takahiro Ueda, (October 17, 2007, University of Rochester)

Otaku for Queer Theory And Media Theory by Michael Moon
A review of Beautiful Fighting Girl by Saito Tamaki, translated by J. Keith Vincent and Dawn Lawson.



The classic Laura Mulvey Male Gaze piece:

[] and [] and: []



On losing the lead role:

“What to do when you’re not the hero any more” by Laurie Penny, The New Statesman



Stop using queer folk as disposable characters to spice up your lame story: 

I Don’t Want Your Queer Tragedy: A Parable, (MARCH 25, 2016) by Merc Rustadin

Why Jason Rothenberg’s apology fell flat with The 100’s fans and the real lessons to learn (Sun, Mar 27, 2016 8:43am) by Dany Roth



More Academics –  social studies, etc. around Japan:

Tokyo Scum Brigade

Tokyo Damage Report:


The Pay Sucks:

An Industry Awaiting Reform: The Social Origins and Economics of Manga and Animation in Postwar Japan by Oguma Eiji, Translation by Yokota Kayoko


Nearby, yet far away:

Appropriating Yaoi and Boys Love in the Philippines; Conflict, Resistance and Imaginations Through and Beyond Japan by Tricia Abigail Santos Fermin


Notable Somewhat related:

The Potter of Bones by Eleanor Arnason, (because I have a weakness for Lesbian -furry- sci-fi with hidden barbs at theological bigots)

Now only a preview, full version via the wayback machine:

The Sirens and Feminine Jouissance by Renata Salecl, in “differences Volume 9, Number 1” at


Through Western Eyes:
(4 chan’s Yuri board CAUTION: often extreme content) (4 chan’s Yaoi board CAUTION: often extreme content)

A bunch of western rotten girls self-define in a wiki format page:
( Guys and girls, why do women like yaoi?)
(re: comment section, physical labor = hunky guy. high status = Bishie)

Bringing Smexy Back: Fangirl Production, AMVs, and Transgressive Sexuality by Elizabeth Birmingham

A much refered to “primer” for newbie western rotten girls – a typology of how sex works in a yaoi sex scene, at:
blog now defunct, see the backup at:
…which turns out just to be a reworking of this earlier article at the long defunct Aestheticism fan site, archived here:

More by the same correspondent:

ca 2000: 10 things she do like about Yaoi (excellent!)

[a reply: ]

All of her stuff on the site:

Another argument for Comiket being fen driven:

2008 vintage bibliography on western fujoshi fanning over y/bl

from 2002, on the growing popularity of the genre


The famous essay by “Audrey Lemon”: “How Slash Saved Me



On appropriating shonen manga:

Translation of a Chinese rotten girl’s thoughts on jump circa 2006-7

From K. at Champloo:



FANSPLAINING’S [] surveys []

The Fandom Tropes Survey: “More than 7,500 fanfiction readers filled out the Fansplaining Fic Preferences Survey. What can we learn from the results?”

Summary: Five Tropes Fanfic Readers Love (And One They Hate)

Discussion on Tumblr:

The Definitions Survey: ” In spring 2017, we held a major survey of individuals’ definitions of the word “fanfiction” (as well as several other topics).

Preliminary results:


International Anime Research Project []
Past results:


Going back through this blog, I see that 2 other surveys posted here failed to report their findings in an “open” format. From now on, If you want a mention of your survey, you better promise to release the findings in an open, available format.



I LIke the Mirror thing:

The Great Mirror of Fandom: Reflections of (and on) Otaku and Fujoshi in Anime and Manga by Clarissa Graffeo, MA English Thesis, 2014
Note that we both reach the mirror conceit via slightly different paths. Mine is a play on Jimbo’s The Mirror of Production, while hers draws from  Fans:The Mirror of Consumption by Cornel Sandvoss, which I must one day hunt down.